JAX-RS, JSON and DTOs by @MatthiasReining

Don't use DTOs!


Sometimes it is difficult to use entity-beans directly in your view layer or in your REST interface. There are a lot of blog entries and discussions about this topic. For example:



Both are from Adam Bien's blog with very interesting comments.

Now some explanation how I deal with DTOs in REST interfaces (specially for HTML5/REST/JSON applications):

It is easy to use entity-beans directly in your REST interface:

  • You save a lot of code.
  • You implement the DRY principle and...
  • You often get a lot of problems ;-)

Some of the common problems are:

  • lazy loading exceptions
  • different need
    • data for a list with some special information from other entity beans
    • data for an object browser (here are entity beans possible)
    • sometimes you want to use @JsonIgnore/@XMLTransparent, sometimes you don't.
  • very complex back-end models with a lot of relations.
  • back-end models with cycles.

Now a suggestion could be to introduce DTOs to solve this listed problems.
But I think this is not a very nice solution!

My recommendation:

For REST interfaces use Map<String, Object> as transfer object!

Object can be: String, Long, Double or List<Object>


  • In the most cases the client side uses a different format between receiving and sending data. So the structure you send from the server to the client is not recycled. You can build a nested Map instead of using setter of a normal DTO.
  • The mapping between a DTO (normal Java object) and clean JSON structure is often a nightmare.
  • The structure Map<String, Object> and List<Object> (inside your Map) fits perfect to the JavaScript/JSON side.